Professor: Roberto R. Heredia., Ph.D. 

URL: https://www.tamiu.edu/coas/psy/heredia/

Office: Brain & Cognition Laboratory CNS 205

E-mail: rheredia@tamiu.edu

Class Time & Place: TR 11:40 AM – 1:00 PM 125 AIC

Phone: (956) 326-2637

Office Hours:  T & R 10:00 AM to 11:00 AM & 1:30 PM – 3:30 PM; W 5:00 PM – 5:30 PM or By Appointment


Introduces practical knowledge of statistical reasoning, from descriptive statistics such as histograms, measures of central tendency, variability, and correlation, to inferential statistics including, probability theory, hypothesis testing, effect size, t-tests, analysis of variance ( ANOVA), regression, and chi square, which are essential for understanding scientific reports in psychology and cognitive science. Students enrolled in this class must obtain a " C" or better to enroll in PSYC 3302. Prerequisite: PSYC 2301 or permission of instructor. Corequisite: Concurrent enrollment in PSYC 2117 Basic Statistics for Psychology Laboratory.

In this course you will gain the following:

  •  Ability to understand and explain to others the statistical analysis in reports of social and behavioral science research journals.
  •  The ability to identify the appropriate statistical procedures for basic quantitative research, and to carry out the necessary computations.
  •  The ability to apply and utilize statistical concepts in designing, executing, and interpreting psychological research.
  •  Further development of your quantitative and analytic thinking skills.
  •  A preparation for more advanced courses in statistics, research methods, or experimental psychology.
  •  Employ the appropriate methods, technologies and data that social and behavioral scientists use to investigate and understand the human condition.
  •  Reading the assigned material, which includes following the numeric examples closely and writing down questions about anything not entirely clear to you.
  •  Reading statistics requires close study and re–reading, not just reading through once as you might an ordinary book.
  • Completing the assigned practice problems. Statistics is a skill––it is necessary to DO statistics, not just read and understand!
  • Attending lectures, listening closely, asking questions. DO NOT fall behind!
  • Studying for, taking, and reviewing answers for exams; read chapters summaries, learn the key terms, and practice the worked-out Problems for each chapter!
  • Improving your understanding of statistics by using statistical Free GNU/ Open Source software ( Jamovi, JASPPSPP) for Mac, Linux, ChromeOS, Windows).
  • Ask, answer questions, or report interesting articles about issues related to statistics or research in the TAMIU-Stats Facebook page!
As rightly pointed out by Linden (2007), I will Imagine that [my] audience has zero knowledge [about stats] but infinite intelligence (Prologue, The accidental mind: How brain evolution has given us love, memory, dreams, and god ).
Hartley, R., & Heredia, R.R. (in progress).  Statistics for the social–behavioral sciences. University of Cambridge Press. (Chapters provided by professor).
Navarro, D.J., & Foxcroft, D.R. (2019). Learning statistics with jamovi: A tutorial for psychology students and other beginners . (Version 0.70). DOI: 10.24384/hgc3-7p15. Download the tutorial from here.
Jamovi (and jamovi online Demo),  JASP, and PSPP. Choose among other statistical programs available here, and  data sets to practice.

Calculator: Inexpensive Calculator with X 2  and √ Number Capabilities.


  • Each of the three exams will cover only the material since the last exam (except to the extent that the previous material is necessary for understanding the new material).
  • Exams will be multiple choice and short answer essays requiring conceptual understanding of statistical principles necessary in experimental research.
  • The final Examination will be comprehensive and will contain a written component (see Policies of the College of Arts & Sciences).
  • No exam make-ups will be allowed.
This course requires the use of LockDown Browser and Respondus Monitor (webcam) for online exams. The webcam can be built into your computer or can be the type that plugs in with a USB cable.

Watch this short video to get a basic understanding of LockDown Browser and Respondus Monitor (the webcam feature). A student Quick Start Guide (PDF) is also available. Click here for further information.


  • Cellular phones should be turned off and put away.
  • Students should remain on their seats until the end of class.
  • Students are welcomed to bring personal computers to class for note-taking purposes. Students should not use class time for net surfing or for other non-class-related purposes.
  • For all assignments, please show your work. Assignments with answers only will not be accepted and will not be counted. Please turn in your homework assignments to your corresponding laboratory session.
  • It is expected that you will neither give nor receive any unauthorized aid (defined as, but not limited to, the use of your notes, textbooks, the Internet, or people) for all tests and assignments in this class. All students are required to read and understand Dusty Devil's HONOR CODE, complete the HONOR CODE FORM and return it to your professor, and remember, a Dusty Devil does not lie, cheat, steal, or tolerate those who do .

You can earn extra points by participating in ongoing research projects, provided that you meet the requirements of the particular experiment. These requirements are determined by the investigator of the particular study. After you complete the required experiment (2 hours), you will earn 1 extra points for every additional hour (up to 10 hours) that you participate.

Points will accumulate over the semester such that there will be:

3 Examinations

@ 200 Points

600 Points (71% of grade) 

1 Final Exam

@ 200 Points

200 Points (24% of grade)

Attendance & Participation

@ 50 Points

50 Points (5% of grade)


A = 90-100%, B = 80-89%, C = 70-79%, D = 60-69%, F =59% and below










Descriptive Statistics : Using Tables and Graphs, Displaying number



 AUG 24

Introduction/Statistics in the Research Process

Ch 1

 HW#1: 3–5,7–8, 13–14

AUG 26 – 31

Graphic Representation and Frequency Distributions  (Descriptives)

Ch 2

HW#2: 5–7,9–10, 12, 16

SEP 2 – 7

Measures of Central Tendency: Mean, Median, & Mode

Ch 3

HW#3: 1, 4, 5,7–9, 13, 16, 18

SEP 9 – 14

Measures of Variability: Variance  & Standard Deviation

Ch 4

HW#4: 1, 5–6, 9–12

SEP 16

Measures of Variability/ Review


 HW#5: 13–15

SEP 21


Exam 1 Study Guide  


Inferential Statistics



SEP  23

Z score & Normal Curve (Z calculator): Sample vs. Populations

Ch 5.1, Ch 5.2

HW#6: 5–6, 8, 10-13, 16, 18, 21, 22

SEP 28 Probability (Coin Simulator): Computing & Understanding Probabilities Ch 5.3 HW#7: 27–29, 40–41, 44

SEP 30 – OCT 5

Hypothesis Testing Logic  (see YouTube Demos)

Ch 6.1

HW#8: 2–4, 7–11


Sampling Distribution of Means: Hypothesis Testing with Means of Samples

Ch 6.2

HW#9: 13, 15, 18, 21, 23, 25–29, 33, 35

OCT 12

Power and Effect Size: Making Sense of Statistics (Power Calculator)

Ch 6.3, Ch 6.4

HW#10: 37, 38, 40

OCT 14

Estimation and Confidence Intervals: Testing with Means of Samples


HW#11: 44–47

OCT 19

Exam 2 Study Guide



T-Test: Parametric Statistics (William S. Gosset)

OCT 21 – 26

Introduction to the t-Test & Single -Sample t-Tes (T value calculator):

Ch 7

HW#12: 1, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12-15

OCT 28 – NOV 2

Independent Means t-Tes I: t-Tes for Uncorrelated/Independent Samples.

Ch 7.1

HW#13: 18-20, 23-24, 26,29-30


Dependent Means t-Tes : t-Tes for Correlated Samples

Ch 7.2

HW#14: 31-32,34,35

NOV 9 Exam 3 Study Guide  

Parametric Statistics Continued... (R. A. Fisher)

NOV 11 Correlation: Relationship vs. Cause and Effect? (Galton)  Ch 9 HW#15: 1-5, 10, 11-14

NOV 16

Regression II: Ability to Predict

 Ch 9.1

HW#16: No Homework

NOV 18 – 23

Introduction to ANOVA  (Fisher, ANOVA, F): Analysis for Multiple Group Means / Introduction to Factorial Designs: Analysis for Multiple Group Means & Interactions

Ch 10, Ch 10.1

HW#17: Chapter 10; 1,

2 (a-b), 4 (a-b, d), 5 (a-b, d),14

NOV 24

Reading Day



NOV 30

Chi-Square Test of Goodness of FitChi-SQR Test of Independence  Chi-SQR Calculator)

Ch 11

HW#18: TBA


FINAL EXAM at 11:40 PM

Final Exam Study Guide

NOTE: The above schedule and procedures in this course are subject to change in the event of extenuating circumstances.

Policies of the College of Arts and Sciences

(Current as of August 2, 2021)

COVID-19 Related Policies

Refer to the link below to learn more about COVID-19 Related Policies for the university. Please note that due to the nature of the pandemic, the university is continuously updating policies.

COVID-19 Response Center: https://www.tamiu.edu/coronavirus/

In order to ensure your safety and that of others, for the fall semester and until further notice, you are required:

  • To self-monitor each day before coming to campus and to stay at home if you have any of the symptoms of COVID-19 as enumerated here: https://www.tamiu.edu/coronavirus/
  • Complete a mandatory COVID-19 safety-training course. Training will be available in Blackboard.

We encourage all students to:

  1. Continue to wear a face-covering while on campus, especially in classrooms, although we do not require face coverings.
  2. Wash hands thoroughly and use personal hand-sanitizer frequently.
  3. Wipe down work areas with provided sanitizer wipes.
  4. Maintain social distance while on campus.

Remember, if you are sick or exhibiting symptoms of COVID-19, you should NOT come to work or school. If you have symptoms, contact a healthcare provider. Current TAMIU Students can call Student Health Services at (956) 326-2236 or visit Student Center (STC) room 125.

All members of the University community may be selected randomly and required to test for COVID-19 on campus with consequences for non-compliance. In addition, testing may be required for some TAMIU in-person activities, classes, events or programs.

Required Class Attendance

Students are expected to attend every class in person (or virtually, if the class is online) and to complete all assignments. If you cannot attend class, it is your responsibility to communicate absences with your professors. The faculty member will decide if your excuse is valid and thus may provide lecture materials of the class. According to University policy, acceptable reasons for an absence, which cannot affect a student’s grade, include: 

  • Participation in an authorized University activity.
  • Death or major illness in a student’s immediate family.
  • Illness of a dependent family member.
  • Participation in legal proceedings or administrative procedures that require a student’s presence.
  • Religious holy day.
  • Illness that is too severe or contagious for the student to attend class.
  • Required participation in military duties.
  • Mandatory admission interviews for professional or graduate school which cannot be rescheduled.

Students are responsible for providing satisfactory evidence to faculty members within seven calendar days of their absence and return to class. They must substantiate the reason for absence. If the absence is excused, faculty members must either provide students with the opportunity to make up the exam or other work missed, or provide a satisfactory alternative to complete the exam or other work missed within 30 calendar days from the date of absence. Students who miss class due to a University-sponsored activity are responsible for identifying their absences to their instructors with as much advance notice as possible. 

Classroom Behavior (applies to online or Face-to-Face Classes)

TAMIU encourages classroom discussion and academic debate as an essential intellectual activity. It is essential that students learn to express and defend their beliefs, but it is also essential that they learn to listen and respond respectfully to others whose beliefs they may not share. The University will always tolerate diverse, unorthodox, and unpopular points of view, but it will not tolerate condescending or insulting remarks. When students verbally abuse or ridicule and intimidate others whose views they do not agree with, they subvert the free exchange of ideas that should characterize a university classroom. If their actions are deemed by the professor to be disruptive, they will be subject to appropriate disciplinary action (please refer to Student Handbook Article 4).

TAMIU Honor Code: Plagiarism and Cheating

As a TAMIU student, you are bound by the TAMIU Honor Code to conduct yourself ethically in all your activities as a TAMIU student and to report violations of the Honor Code. Please read carefully the Student Handbook Article 7 and Article 10 available at https://www.tamiu.edu/scce/studenthandbook.shtml.

We are committed to strict enforcement of the Honor Code. Violations of the Honor Code tend to involve claiming work that is not one’s own, most commonly plagiarism in written assignments and any form of cheating on exams and other types of assignments.

Plagiarism is the presentation of someone else’s work as your own. It occurs when you: 

  1. Borrow someone else’s facts, ideas, or opinions and put them entirely in your own words, you must acknowledge that these thoughts are not your own by immediately citing the source in your paper. Failure to do this is plagiarism.
  2. Borrow someone else’s words (short phrases, clauses, or sentences), you must enclose the copied words in quotation marks as well as citing the source. Failure to do this is plagiarism. 3) Present someone else’s paper or exam (stolen, borrowed, or bought) as your own, you have committed a clearly intentional form of intellectual theft and have put your academic future in jeopardy. This is the worst form of plagiarism.

Here is another explanation from the 2010, sixth edition of the Manual of The American Psychological Association (APA):

Plagiarism: Researchers do not claim the words and ideas of another as their own; they give credit where credit is due. Quotations marks should be used to indicate the exact   words of another. Each time you paraphrase another author (i.e., summarize a passage or rearrange the order of a sentence and change some of the words), you need to credit the source in the text. The key element of this principle is that authors do not present the work of another as if it were their own words. This can extend to ideas as well as written words. If authors model a study after one done by someone else, the originating author should be given credit. If the rationale for a study was suggested in the Discussion section of someone else's article, the person should be given credit. Given the free exchange of ideas, which is very important for the health of intellectual discourse, authors may not know where an idea for a study originated. If authors do know, however, they should acknowledge the source; this includes personal communications (pp. 15-16). For guidance on proper documentation, consult the Writing Center or a recommended guide to documentation and research such as the Manual of the APA or the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. If you still have doubts concerning proper documentation,seek advice from your instructor prior to submitting a final draft.

TAMIU has penalties for plagiarism and cheating:

  • Penalties for Plagiarism: Should a faculty member discover that a student has committed plagiarism, the student should receive a grade of 'F' in that course and the matter will be referred to the Honor Council for possible disciplinary action. The faculty member, however, may elect to give freshmen and sophomore students a “zero” for the assignment and to allow them to revise the assignment up to a grade of “F” (50%) if they believe that the student plagiarized out of ignorance or carelessness and not out of an attempt to deceive in order to earn an unmerited grade; the instructor must still report the offense to the Honor Council. This option should not be available to juniors, seniors, or graduate students, who cannot reasonably claim ignorance of documentation rules as an excuse. For repeat offenders in undergraduate courses or for an offender in any graduate course, the penalty for plagiarism is likely to include suspension or expulsion from the university.
    • Caution: Be very careful what you upload to Turnitin or send to your professor for evaluation. Whatever you upload for evaluation will be considered your final, approved draft. If it is plagiarized, you will be held responsible. The excuse that “it was only a draft” will not be accepted.
    • Caution: Also, do not share your electronic files with others. If you do, you are responsible for the possible consequences. If another student takes your file of a paper and changes the name to his or her name and submits it and you also submit the paper, we will hold both of you responsible for plagiarism. It is impossible for us to know with certainty who wrote the paper and who stole it. And, of course, we cannot know if there was collusion between you and the other student in the matter.
  • Penalties for Cheating: Should a faculty member discover a student cheating on an exam or quiz or other class project, the student should receive a “zero” for the assignment and not be allowed to make the assignment up. The incident should be reported to the chair of the department and to the Honor Council. If the cheating is extensive, however, or if the assignment constitutes a major grade for the course (e.g., a final exam), or if the student has cheated in the past, the student should receive an “F” in the course, and the matter should be referred to the Honor Council. Additional penalties, including suspension or expulsion from the university may be imposed. Under no circumstances should a student who deserves an “F” in the course be allowed to withdraw from the course with a “W.”
    • Caution: Chat groups that start off as “study groups” can easily devolve into “cheating groups.” Be very careful not to join or remain any chat group if begins to discuss specific information about exams or assignments that are meant to require individual work. If you are a member of such a group and it begins to cheat, you will be held responsible along with all the other members of the group. The TAMIU Honor Code requires that you report any such instances of cheating.
  • Student Right of Appeal: Faculty will notify students immediately via the student’s TAMIU e- mail account that they have submitted plagiarized work. Students have the right to appeal a faculty member’s charge of academic dishonesty by notifying the TAMIU Honor Council of their intent to appeal as long as the notification of appeal comes within 10 business days of the faculty member’s e-mail message to the student and/or the Office of Student Conduct and Community Engagement. The Student Handbook provides more details.

Use of Work in Two or More Courses

You may not submit work completed in one course for a grade in a second course unless you receive explicit permission to do so by the instructor of the second course. In general, you should get credit for a work product only once. 

TAMIU E-Mail and Dusty Alert

Personal Announcements sent to students through TAMIU E-mail (tamiu.edu or dusty email) are the official means of communicating course and university business with students and faculty –not the U.S. Mail and no other e-mail addresses. Students and faculty must check their TAMIU e-mail accounts regularly, if not daily. Not having seen an important TAMIU e-mail or message from a faculty member, chair, or dean is not accepted as an excuse for failure to take important action. Students, faculty, and staff are encouraged to sign-up for Dusty Alert (see www.tamiu.edu). Dusty Alert is an instant cell phone text-messaging system allowing the university to communicate immediately with you if there is an on-campus emergency, something of immediate danger to you, or a campus closing.

Copyright Restrictions

The Copyright Act of 1976 grants to copyright owners the exclusive right to reproduce their works and distribute copies of their work. Works that receive copyright protection include published works such as a textbook. Copying a textbook without permission from the owner of the copyright may constitute copyright infringement. Civil and criminal penalties may be assessed for copyright infringement. Civil penalties include damages up to $100,000; criminal penalties include a fine up to $250,000 and imprisonment. Copyright laws do not allow students and professors to make photocopies of copyrighted materials, but you may copy a limited portion of a work, such as article from a journal or a chapter from a book for your own personal academic use or, in the case of a professor, for personal, limited classroom use. In general, the extent of your copying should not suggest that the purpose or the effect of your copying is to avoid paying for the materials. And, of course, you may not sell these copies for a profit. Thus, students who copy textbooks to avoid buying them or professors who provide photocopies of textbooks to enable students to save money are violating the law.

Students with Disabilities

Texas A&M International University seeks to provide reasonable accommodations for all qualified persons with disabilities. This University will adhere to all applicable federal, state, and local laws, regulations and guidelines with respect to providing reasonable accommodations as required to afford equal education opportunity. It is the student's responsibility to register with the Office of Student Counseling and Disability Services located in Student Center 126.  This office will contact the faculty member to recommend specific, reasonable accommodations. Faculty are prohibited from making accommodations based solely on communications from students. They may make accommodations only when provided documentation by the Student Counseling and Disability Services office.

Student Attendance and Leave of Absence (LOA) Policy

As part of our efforts to assist and encourage all students towards graduation, TAMIU provides LOA’s for students, including pregnant/parenting students, in accordance with the Attendance Rule (Section 3.07) and the Student LOA Rule (Section 3.08), which includes the “Leave of Absence Request” form. Both rules can be found in the TAMIU Student Handbook (URL: http://www.tamiu.edu/studentaffairs/StudentHandbook1.shtml).

Pregnant and Parenting Students

Under Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, harassment based on sex, including harassment because of pregnancy or related conditions, is prohibited. A pregnant/parenting student must be granted an absence for as long as the student’s physician deems the absence medically necessary. It is a violation of Title IX to ask for documentation relative to the pregnant/parenting student’s status beyond what would be required for other medical conditions. If a student would like to file a complaint for discrimination due to his or her pregnant/parenting status, please contact the TAMIU Title IX Coordinator (Lorissa M. Cortez, 5201 University Boulevard, KLM 159B, Laredo, TX 78041,TitleIX@tamiu.edu, 956.326.2857) and/or the Office of Civil Rights (Dallas Office, U.S. Department of Education, 1999 Bryan Street, Suite 1620, Dallas, TX 75201-6810, 214.661.9600). You can also report it on TAMIU’s anonymous electronic reporting site: www.tamiu.edu/reportit.

TAMIU advises a pregnant/parenting student to notify their professor once the student is aware that accommodations for such will be necessary. It is recommended that the student and professor develop a reasonable plan for the student’s completion of missed coursework or assignments. The Office of Equal Opportunity and Diversity (Lorissa M. Cortez, lorissam.cortez@tamiu.edu) can assist the student and professor in working out the reasonable accommodations. For other questions or concerns regarding Title IX compliance related to pregnant/parenting students at the University, contact the Title IX Coordinator. In the event that a student will need a leave of absence for a substantial period of time, TAMIU urges the student to consider a Leave of Absence (LOA) as outlined in the TAMIU Student Handbook. As part of our efforts to assist and encourage all students towards graduation, TAMIU provides LOA’s for students, including pregnant/parenting students, in accordance with the Attendance Rule and the Student LOA Rule. Both rules can be found in the TAMIU Student Handbook (https://www.tamiu.edu/scce/studenthandbook.shtml).

Anti-Discrimination/Title IX

TAMIU does not discriminate or permit harassment against any individual on the basis of race, color, sex, religion, national origin, age, disability, genetic information, veteran status, sexual orientation or gender identity in admissions, educational programs, or employment. If you would like to file a complaint relative to Title IX or any civil rights violation, please contact the TAMIU Director of Equal Opportunity and Diversity/Title IX Coordinator, Lorissa M. Cortez, 5201 University Boulevard, Killam Library 159B, Laredo, TX 78041,TitleIX@tamiu.edu, 956.326.2857, via the anonymous electronic reporting website, ReportIt, at www.tamiu.edu/reportit , and/or the Office of Civil Rights (Dallas Office), U.S. Department of Education, 1999 Bryan Street, Suite 1620, Dallas, TX 75201-6810, 214.661.9600.


Students who are unable to complete a course should withdraw from the course before the final date for withdrawal and receive a “W.” To qualify for an “incomplete” and thus have the opportunity to complete the course at a later date, a student must meet the following criteria: 

  1. The student must have completed 90% of the course work assigned before the final date for withdrawing from a course with a “W”, and the student must be passing the course;
  2. The student cannot complete the course because an accident, an illness, or a traumatic personal or family event occurred after the final date for withdrawal from a course;
  3. The student must sign an “Incomplete Grade Contract” and secure signatures of approval from the professor and the college dean.
  4. The student must agree to complete the missing course work before the end of the next long semester; failure to meet this deadline will cause the “I” to automatically be converted to an “F”; extensions to this deadline may be granted by the dean of the college. This is the general policy regarding the circumstances under which an “incomplete” may be granted, but under exceptional circumstances, a student may receive an incomplete who does not meet all of the criteria above if the faculty member, department chair, and dean recommend it.

WIN Contracts

The Department of Biology and Chemistry does not permit WIN contracts. For other departments within the college, WIN Contracts are offered only under exceptional circumstances and are limited to graduating seniors. Only courses offered by full-time TAMIU faculty or TAMIU instructors are eligible to be contracted for the WIN requirement. However, a WIN contract for a course taught by an adjunct may be approved, with special permission from the department chair and dean. Students must seek approval before beginning any work for the WIN Contract. No student will contract more than one course per semester. Summer WIN Contracts must continue through both summer sessions.

Student Responsibility for Dropping a Course

It is the responsibility of the student to drop the course before the final date for withdrawal from a course. Faculty members, in fact, may not drop a student from a course without getting the approval of their department chair and dean.

Independent Study Course

Independent Study (IS) courses are offered only under exceptional circumstances. Required courses intended to build academic skills may not be taken as IS (e.g., clinical supervision and internships). No student will take more than one IS course per semester. Moreover, IS courses are limited to seniors and graduate students. Summer IS course must continue through both summer sessions.

Grade Changes & Appeals

Faculty are authorized to change final grades only when they have committed a computational error or an error in recording a grade, and they must receive the approval of their department chairs and the dean to change the grade. As part of that approval, they must attach a detailed explanation of the reason for the mistake. Only in rare cases would another reason be entertained as legitimate for a grade change. A student who is unhappy with his or her grade on an assignment must discuss the situation with the faculty member teaching the course. If students believe that they have been graded unfairly, they have the right to appeal the grade using a grade appeal process in the Student Handbook and in the Faculty Handbook.

Final Examination

All courses in all colleges must include a comprehensive exam or performance and be given on the date and time specified by the Academic Calendar and the Final Exam schedule published by the Registrar’s Office. In the College of Arts & Sciences all final exams must contain a written component. The written component should comprise at least 20% of the final exam grade. Exceptions to this policy must receive the approval of the department chair and the dean at the beginning of the semester.