Roberto R. Heredia., Ph.D., Regents Professor

URL: https://www.tamiu.edu/coas/psy/heredia/

Office: Brain & Cognition Laboratory, CNS 205B

E-mail: rheredia@tamiu.edu

Class Time & Place: W 6:00 PM – 8:45 PM; Pellegrino Hall 214

Phone: (956) 326-2637

Office Hours:  M 11:00 AM – 12:00 PM; T & R 11:00 AM to 1:00 PM; W 4:30 PM – 5:30 PM or By Appointment



Examines the processing systems that underlie human learning, memory and cognition. Involves discussion and critical evaluation of current, historical, and interdisciplinary readings relevant to human memory. Prerequisite: Graduate standing or permission of the instructor.


1. Critically interpret research articles in the field of human memory and learning.
2. Appraise and contrast the principles (e.g., short-term, long-term, episodic, procedural, and working memory) and logic in human memory research.
3. Compose a literature review on a specific topic in the field human memory and learning.
4. Formulate a theoretically sound research proposal for an original study in the field of human memory and learning

Radvansky, G. A. (2021). Human Memory (4th Ed.). New York, NY: Routledge (ISBN: 9780367252922; Companion Website).

Note: Additional readings will be determined as the semester progresses. Please check your BlackBoard email correspondence for weekly readings and class updates.
This is a demanding course. There is considerable reading and writing to be done and much to think about. You are expected to master the basic material covered in the readings/discussions and to participate actively in class. The assumption underlying this class is that we are responsible students that want to learn and produce high quality work. Lectures and discussions are designed to supplement the readings. As such, you can expect discussions to present ideas that are not always covered in the readings.


(1). There will be one midterm and a final each worth 100 points consisting of essay questions. The midterm will cover only the material for the first part of the course, and the final will be comprehensive. You may use published material and your own notes in answering exam questions.

(2). Class will consist of discussions, and in-class activities. Active class discussion is expected and required (100 points; Participation & Attendance), to succesfully complete the course with a passing grade. Class discussions allow an in-depth analysis of the issues covered in the assigned weekly readings, particularly discussions of the ways in which reading topics apply to memory issuess in everyday life and the human mind. You will be much more prepared for lively discussion during the classroom time if you have read the assigned material prior to the time in which it will be addressed in class.

(3). Students will select three (3) recently published (i.e., last four years) research articles from the field of learning and memory to critically evaluate and review during class discussions (15–30 minute presentation; 100 points, Participation & Attendnace).

(4). By 12:00 PM of every Tuesday, submit to BlackBoard 3–5 discussion points, per article (see #3 above), related to the theme(s) of the assigned readings for the week. Discussion points should be empirical or theoretical implications raised by the material that suggest creative connections to other issues, or follow up experiments. Comments must reveal thoughtful reflection on the material in about 100–500 words per article. Be prepared to discuss the issues you raised(Discussion points are part of your Participation and Attenance evaluation [100 points] and should be submitted on time for full credit, and to successfully complete the course with a passing grade. No late submissions are allowed after 12:00 PM).

(5) Attendance: Attendance is not only mandatory, but crucial for the course to function well.

(6). A final academic presentation (100 points) is required (see #7, below and rubric). In lieu of the final academic presentation, the student may choose to present a poster or paper at an Academic Conference. If you choose this option, you need to register for the conference. Your grade for the presentation will be based on the score received from the conference judges.

(7) A written assignment (100 points; see TAMIU Course Policies [below]: Use of Work in Two or more Courses; see also Rubric) with at least 3,500 words and at least 15 (up-to-date) references is due November 18, 2022 at 12:00 AM. (All references and in-text citations should be accounted for accordingly; see TAMIU Course Policies: TAMIU Honor Code: Plagiarism and Cheating. Psychology Today and internet sources (e.g., wikipedia.org or interaction-design.org/literature/topics/human-memory) are not valid references. The emphasis on the research paper will be on your ability to write well (i.e., APA style, 7th ed.), integrate existing literature, and your ability to reason critically and scientifically. This paper will be an independent project  related to human memory or learning (e.g., a proposed study, experiment, or theoretical review; it is always an excellent idea to attempt a replication of a previously published experiment). An academic presentation (10-15 minutes) will accompany this proposal (100 points, Participation & Attendnace).

(8). It is expected that you will neither give nor receive any unauthorized aid for all tests and/or assignments in this class (See, TAMIU  Course Policies; TAMIU Honor Code:  Plagiarism and Cheating [below]). A Dustyt Devil does not lie, cheat, steal, or tolerate those who do.

(9). As per TAMIU Regulations,  all electronic communication with students will take place via the TAMIU email system. The instructor will ONLY respond to and send messages to TAMIU email addresses. Students must check their TAMIU email accounts regularly. In general, students can expect responses to email messages within 24/48 hours.


2 Examinations (Midterm + Final) 200 200 points
Participation & Attendance 200 + 100 300 points
Research Paper 100 100 points
Research Presentation 100 100 points

   A = 90-100%, B = 80-89%, Unsatisfactory = 79% and below





AUG 24

Introduction to the Study of Memory/Memory and the Brain

Ch 1-2

AUG 31

Methods & Principles

Ch 3


Sensory Memory/STM

Ch 4

SEP 14

Working Memory

Ch 5

SEP 21

 Nondeclarative Memory                   

Ch 6

SEP 28

Episodic Memory

Ch 7



Ch 8

OCT 12



OCT 19

 Semantic Memory

Ch 9

OCT 26

 Forms of Amnesia & Formal Models of Memory

Ch 10 & Ch 18


Memory for Space & Time

Ch 11


Autobiographical Memory/Memory and the Law (Guest Speaker)

Ch 12 & Ch 14

NOV 16 Memory and Reality/Metamemory (Research Proposal Due Date) Ch 13 & Ch 15
NOV 23 Reading Day  

NOV 30

FINAL EXAM at  7:35 PM


NOTE: The above schedule and procedures in this course are subject to change in the event of extenuating circumstances.


Texas A&M International University

Course Policies (Last Revised:  December 20, 2021)


Students are strongly encouraged to get fully vaccinated and to get booster shots after an appropriate number of months.  Students are also strongly encouraged to wear masks when entering buildings or when congregating with other students in close proximity outdoors.  Maintaining at least 3 feet of social distance with others is also highly recommended.  TAMIU offers free COVID testing.

Class Attendance Required

With the exception of online courses, students are expected to attend every class in person and to complete all assignments. If you cannot attend class, it is your responsibility to communicate absences with your professors.  The faculty member will decide if your excuse is valid.  According to University policy, acceptable reasons for an absence (physical or virtual), which cannot affect a student’s grade, include:

  • Participation in an authorized University activity.
  • Death or major illness in a student’s immediate family.
  • Illness of a dependent family member.
  • Participation in legal proceedings or administrative procedures that require a student’s presence.
  • Religious holy day.
  • Illness that is too severe or contagious for the student to attend class.
  • Required participation in military duties.
  • Mandatory admission interviews for professional or graduate school which cannot be rescheduled.

Students are responsible for providing satisfactory evidence to faculty members within seven calendar days of their absence and return to class. They must substantiate the reason for absence. If the absence is excused, faculty members must either provide students with the opportunity to make up the exam or other work missed or provide a satisfactory alternative to complete the exam or other work missed within 30 calendar days from the date of absence. Students who miss class due to a University-sponsored activity are responsible for identifying their absences to their instructors with as much advance notice as possible.  The right to view recorded class meetings depends upon receiving an excused absence from the faculty member teaching the class.

Classroom Behavior

TAMIU encourages classroom discussion and academic debate as an essential intellectual activity. It is essential that students learn to express and defend their beliefs, but it is also essential that they learn to listen and respond respectfully to others whose beliefs they may not share. The University will always tolerate diverse, unorthodox, and unpopular points of view, but it will not tolerate condescending or insulting remarks. When students verbally abuse or ridicule and intimidate others whose views they do not agree with, they subvert the free exchange of ideas that should characterize a university classroom. If their actions are deemed by the professor to be disruptive, they will be subject to appropriate disciplinary action (please refer to Student Handbook Article 4).

TAMIU Honor Code:  Plagiarism and Cheating

As a TAMIU student, you are bound by the TAMIU Honor Code to conduct yourself ethically in all your activities as a TAMIU student and to report violations of the Honor Code. Please read carefully the Student Handbook Article 7 and Article 10 available at https://www.tamiu.edu/scce/studenthandbook.shtml.

We are committed to strict enforcement of the Honor Code.

Violations of the Honor Code tend to involve claiming work that is not one’s own, most commonly plagiarism in written assignments and any form of cheating on exams and other types of assignments.

Plagiarism is the presentation of someone else’s work as your own. It occurs when you:

Borrow someone else’s facts, ideas, or opinions and put them entirely in your own words, you must acknowledge that these thoughts are not your own by immediately citing the source in your paper. Failure to do this is plagiarism.

  • Borrow someone else’s words (short phrases, clauses, or sentences), you must enclose the copied words in quotation marks as well as citing the source. Failure to do this is plagiarism. 3) Present someone else’s paper or exam (stolen, borrowed, or bought) as your own, you have committed a clearly intentional form of intellectual theft and have put your academic future in jeopardy. This is the worst form of plagiarism.

Here is another explanation from the 2010, sixth edition of the Manual of The American Psychological Association(APA):

Plagiarism: Researchers do not claim the words and ideas of another as their own; they give credit where credit is due. Quotations marks should be used to indicate the exact words of another. Each time you paraphrase another author (i.e., summarize a passage or rearrange the order of a sentence and change some of the words), you need to credit the source in the text. The key element of this principle is that authors do not present the work of another as if it were their own words. This can extend to ideas as well as written words. If authors model a study after one done by someone else, the originating author should be given credit. If the rationale for a study was suggested in the Discussion section of someone else's article, the person should be given credit. Given the free exchange of ideas, which is very important for the health of intellectual discourse, authors may not know where an idea for a study originated. If authors do know, however, they should acknowledge the source; this includes personal communications (pp. 15-16). For guidance on proper documentation, consult the Writing Center or a recommended guide to documentation and research such as the Manual of the APA or the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. If you still have doubts concerning proper documentation, seek advice from your instructor prior to submitting a final draft. 
  • Penalties for Plagiarism: Should a faculty member discover that a student has committed plagiarism, the student should receive a grade of 'F' in that course and the matter will be referred to the Honor Council for possible disciplinary action. The faculty member, however, may elect to give freshmen and sophomore students a “zero” for the assignment and to allow them to revise the assignment up to a grade of “F” (50%) if they believe that the student plagiarized out of ignorance or carelessness and not out of an attempt to deceive in order to earn an unmerited grade; the instructor must still report the offense to the Honor Council. This option should not be available to juniors, seniors, or graduate students, who cannot reasonably claim ignorance of documentation rules as an excuse. For repeat offenders in undergraduate courses or for an offender in any graduate course, the penalty for plagiarism is likely to include suspension or expulsion from the university.
  • Caution: Be very careful what you upload to Turnitin or send to your professor for evaluation. Whatever you upload for evaluation will be considered your final, approved draft. If it is plagiarized, you will be held responsible. The excuse that “it was only a draft” will not be accepted.
  • Caution: Also, do not share your electronic files with others. If you do, you are responsible for the possible consequences. If another student takes your file of a paper and changes the name to his or her name and submits it and you also submit the paper, we will hold both of you responsible for plagiarism. It is impossible for us to know with certainty who wrote the paper and who stole it. And, of course, we cannot know if there was collusion between you and the other student in the matter.
  • Penalties for Cheating: Should a faculty member discover a student cheating on an exam or quiz or other class project, the student should receive a “zero” for the assignment and not be allowed to make the assignment up. The incident should be reported to the chair of the department and to the Honor Council. If the cheating is extensive, however, or if the assignment constitutes a major grade for the course (e.g., a final exam), or if the student has cheated in the past, the student should receive an “F” in the course, and the matter should be referred to the Honor Council. Additional penalties, including suspension or expulsion from the university may be imposed. Under no circumstances should a student who deserves an “F” in the course be allowed to withdraw from the course with a “W.”
  • Caution: Chat groups that start off as “study groups” can easily devolve into “cheating groups.” Be very careful not to join or remain any chat group if begins to discuss specific information about exams or assignments that are meant to require individual work. If you are a member of such a group and it begins to cheat, you will be held responsible along with all the other members of the group. The TAMIU Honor Code requires that you report any such instances of cheating.
  • Student Right of Appeal: Faculty will notify students immediately via the student’s TAMIU e- mail account that they have submitted plagiarized work. Students have the right to appeal a faculty member’s charge of academic dishonesty by notifying the TAMIU Honor Council of their intent to appeal as long as the notification of appeal comes within 10 business days of the faculty member’s e-mail message to the student and/or the Office of Student Conduct and Community Engagement. The Student Handbook provides more details.

Use of Work in Two or More Courses

You may not submit work completed in one course for a grade in a second course unless you receive explicit permission to do so by the instructor of the second course.  In general, you should get credit for a work product only once.

Extra-Credit Work

Faculty may not give extra-credit opportunities to individual students.  They must be made available to all students in a class.  Assignments for extra-credit must be directly related to the learning outcomes of the specific course.  No extra-credit opportunities at all may be given after final grades for the semester are submitted. 

UConnect, TAMIU E-Mail, and Dusty Alert

Personal Announcements sent to students through TAMIU’s Uconnect Portal and TAMIU E-mail are the official means of communicating course and university business with students and faculty –not the U.S. Mail and no other e-mail addresses. Students and faculty must check UConnect and their TAMIU e-mail accounts regularly, if not daily. Not having seen an important TAMIU e-mail or UConnect message from a faculty member, chair, or dean is not accepted as an excuse for failure to take important action. Students, faculty, and staff are encouraged to sign-up for Dusty Alert(see www.tamiu.edu). Dusty Alert is an instant cell phone text-messaging system allowing the university to communicate immediately with you if there is an on-campus emergency, something of immediate danger to you, or a campus closing.

Copyright Restrictions

The Copyright Act of 1976 grants to copyright owners the exclusive right to reproduce their works and distribute copies of their work. Works that receive copyright protection include published works such as a textbook. Copying a textbook without permission from the owner of the copyright may constitute copyright infringement. Civil and criminal penalties may be assessed for copyright infringement. Civil penalties include damages up to $100,000; criminal penalties include a fine up to $250,000 and imprisonment. Copyright laws do not allow students and professors to make photocopies of copyrighted materials, but you may copy a limited portion of a work, such as article from a journal or a chapter from a book for your own personal academic use or, in the case of a professor, for personal, limited classroom use. In general, the extent of your copying should not suggest that the purpose or the effect of your copying is to avoid paying for the materials. And, of course, you may not sell these copies for a profit. Thus, students who copy textbooks to avoid buying them or professors who provide photocopies of textbooks to enable students to save money are violating the law.

Students with Disabilities

Texas A&M International University seeks to provide reasonable accommodations for all qualified persons with disabilities. This University will adhere to all applicable federal, state, and local laws, regulations and guidelines with respect to providing reasonable accommodations as required to afford equal education opportunity. It is the student's responsibility to register with the Office of Student Counseling and Disability Services located in Student Center 126.  This office will contact the faculty member to recommend specific, reasonable accommodations. Faculty are prohibited from making accommodations based solely on communications from students.  They may make accommodations only when provided documentation by the Student Counseling and Disability Services office.

Student Attendance and Leave of Absence (LOA) Policy 

As part of our efforts to assist and encourage all students towards graduation, TAMIU provides LOA’s for students, including pregnant/parenting students, in accordance with the Attendance Rule (Section 3.07) and the Student LOA Rule (Section 3.08), which includes the “Leave of Absence Request” form. Both rules can be found in the TAMIU Student Handbook (http://www.tamiu.edu/studentaffairs/StudentHandbook1.shtml).

Pregnant and Parenting Students

Under Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, harassment based on sex, including harassment because of pregnancy or related conditions, is prohibited. A pregnant/parenting student must be granted an absence for as long as the student’s physician deems the absence medically necessary. It is a violation of Title IX to ask for documentation relative to the pregnant/parenting student’s status beyond what would be required for other medical conditions. If a student would like to file a complaint for discrimination due to his or her pregnant/parenting status, please contact the TAMIU Title IX Coordinator (Lorissa M. Cortez, 5201 University Boulevard, KLM 159B, Laredo, TX 78041,TitleIX@tamiu.edu, 956.326.2857) and/or the Office of Civil Rights (Dallas Office, U.S. Department of Education, 1999 Bryan Street, Suite 1620, Dallas, TX 75201-6810, 214.661.9600). You can also report it on TAMIU’s anonymous electronic reporting site: www.tamiu.edu/reportit. 

TAMIU advises a pregnant/parenting student to notify their professor once the student is aware that accommodations for such will be necessary. It is recommended that the student and professor develop a reasonable plan for the student’s completion of missed coursework or assignments. The Office of Equal Opportunity and Diversity (Lorissa M. Cortez, lorissam.cortez@tamiu.edu) can assist the student and professor in working out the reasonable accommodations. For other questions or concerns regarding Title IX compliance related to pregnant/parenting students at the University, contact the Title IX Coordinator. In the event that a student will need a leave of absence for a substantial period of time, TAMIU urges the student to consider a Leave of Absence (LOA) as outlined in the TAMIU Student Handbook. As part of our efforts to assist and encourage all students towards graduation, TAMIU provides LOA’s for students, including pregnant/parenting students, in accordance with the Attendance Rule and the Student LOA Rule. Both rules can be found in the TAMIU Student Handbook (https://www.tamiu.edu/scce/studenthandbook.shtml).

Anti-Discrimination/Title IX

TAMIU does not discriminate or permit harassment against any individual on the basis of race, color, sex, religion, national origin, age, disability, genetic information, veteran status, sexual orientation or gender identity in admissions, educational programs, or employment. If you would like to file a complaint relative to Title IX or any civil rights violation, please contact the TAMIU

Director of Equal Opportunity and Diversity/Title IX Coordinator, Lorissa M. Cortez, 5201

University Boulevard, Killam Library 159B, Laredo, TX 78041,TitleIX@tamiu.edu, 956.326.2857, via the anonymous electronic reporting website, ReportIt, at www.tamiu.edu/reportit , and/or the Office of Civil Rights (Dallas Office), U.S. Department of Education, 1999 Bryan Street, Suite 1620, Dallas, TX 75201-6810, 214.661.9600.


Students who are unable to complete a course should withdraw from the course before the final date for withdrawal and receive a “W.” To qualify for an “incomplete” and thus have the opportunity to complete the course at a later date, a student must meet the following criteria: 

  • The student must have completed 90% of the course work assigned before the final date for withdrawing from a course with a “W”, and the student must be passing the course;
  • The student cannot complete the course because an accident, an illness, or a traumatic personal or family event occurred after the final date for withdrawal from a course;
  • The student must sign an “Incomplete Grade Contract” and secure signatures of approval from the professor and the college dean.
  • The student must agree to complete the missing course work before the end of the next long semester; failure to meet this deadline will cause the “I” to automatically be converted to an “F”; extensions to this deadline may be granted by the dean of the college. This is the general policy regarding the circumstances under which an “incomplete” may be granted, but under exceptional circumstances, a student may receive an incomplete who does not meet all of the criteria above if the faculty member, department chair, and dean recommend it.

WIN Contracts

WIN Contracts are offered only under exceptional circumstances and are limited to seniors. Only courses offered by full-time TAMIU faculty or TAMIU instructors are eligible to be contracted for the WIN requirement. However, a WIN contract for a course taught by an adjunct may be approved, with special permission from the department chair and dean. Students must seek approval before beginning any work for the WIN Contract. No student will contract more than one course per semester. Summer WIN Contracts must continue through both summer sessions.

Student Responsibility for Withdrawing from a Course

 It is the responsibility of the student to drop the course before the final date for withdrawal from a course. Faculty members, in fact, may not drop a student from a course without getting the approval of their department chair and dean.

Independent Study Course

Independent Study (IS) courses are offered only under exceptional circumstances. Required courses intended to build academic skills may not be taken as IS (e.g., clinical supervision and internships). No student will take more than one IS course per semester. Moreover, IS courses are limited to seniors and graduate students. Summer IS course must continue through both summer sessions.

Grade Changes & Appeals

Faculty are authorized to change final grades only when they have committed a computational error or an error in recording a grade, and they must receive the approval of their department chairs and the dean to change the grade. As part of that approval, they must attach a detailed explanation of the reason for the mistake. Only in rare cases would another reason be entertained as legitimate for a grade change. A student who is unhappy with his or her grade on an assignment must discuss the situation with the faculty member teaching the course. If students believe that they have been graded unfairly, they have the right to appeal the grade using a grade appeal process as described in the Student Handbook and in the Faculty Handbook.

Final Examination

All courses in all colleges must include a comprehensive exam or performance and be given on the date and time specified by the Academic Calendar and the Final Exam schedule published by the Registrar’s Office. In the College of Arts & Sciences all final exams must contain a written component. The written component should comprise at least 20% of the final exam grade. Exceptions to this policy must receive the approval of the department chair and the dean at the beginning of the semester.


Support Services

To receive free tutoring in most subjects, including help with writing skills:

   Academic Center of Excellence:                                        Cowart 203 and 204 (326-2723)

To receive academic advising for freshmen, transfer students, and select others:

  Advising & Retention Center:                                              ZSC 222 (326-2886)

To receive academic advising for all other students, by college:

  R. Sanchez, Jr., School of Business Advising:                   WHT 204 C and 213 A (326-2483 / 2489)
  College of Arts & Sciences Advising:                                 ACI 3rd floor (COASadvisors@tamiu.edu)
  College of Education Advising:                                              Pellegrino 3rd floor (326-2427 /3148)
  College of Nursing & Health Sciences Advising:              CNS 111 (326-3269 /3110/ 3277)
  University College:                                                               Advising & Retention Center (see above)                                             

To receive personal counseling:

  Student Counseling Services:                                             Student Center 128 (326-2230)

To receive health services:

  Student Health Services:                                             Student Center 125 (326-2235)