Ned Kock is Killam Distinguished Professor and Chair of the Division of International Business and Technology Studies, A.R. Sanchez, Jr. School of Business, Texas A&M International University. Ned also serves as the main editor of the Health Correlator Blog. He is the developer of WarpPLS, a widely used structural equation modeling (SEM) software, and also serves as the main editor of the WarpPLS Blog. He is the founder and moderator of the PLS-SEM Email Distribution List, an online forum for those who share a common interest in partial least squares (PLS) methods and their use in structural equation modeling (SEM).
Formerly Ned has served as: Associate Editor for Information Systems of the journal IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication; Founding Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of e-Collaboration; Founding President of the South Texas Information Management Society; Founding Chair of the Division of International Business and Technology Studies, A.R. Sanchez, Jr. School of Business, Texas A&M International University; Chair of the Department of MIS and Decision Science, College of Business Administration, Texas A&M International University; Class of 1961 Associate Professor and Director of the E-Collaboration Research Center at Lehigh University; and Assistant Professor and Cigna Research Fellow at Temple University.
He holds a B.E.E. in electronics engineering from the Federal Technological University of Parana at Curitiba, Brazil, a M.Sc. in computer science from the Institute of Aeronautical Technology, Brazil, and a Ph.D. in management with a concentration in information systems from the School of Management Studies, University of Waikato, New Zealand. Ned's Ph.D. research analyzed the impact of asynchronous e-collaboration technologies on business process improvement groups.
Ned has been working as a systems analyst and organizational development consultant for over 20 years, having provided consulting, training and systems development services to a number of organizations including Hong Kong & Shanghai Bank, PricewaterhouseCoopers, Johnson & Johnson, Rio de Janeiro State Construction Company, Westaflex, New Zealand Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, True North, Day & Zimmermann, Lockheed Martin, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Texas International Education Consortium, and the European Commission.
Among his awards and distinctions are the following: IGI Global's Outstanding Editor-in-Chief Award winner, Texas A&M International University's Scholar of the Year Award winner, recipient of University of Coimbra's Gulbenkian Professorship, Anbar's Citation of Excellence Award winner, MCB Press Outstanding Paper Award winner, Cigna Corporation Research Fellowship recipient, and Best Paper Award winner at the Australasian Conference on Information Systems.
Ned has authored (and edited) several books, book chapters, journal articles, conference proceedings papers, and book reviews. His articles have been published in a number of journals including Communications of the ACM, Decision Science Journal of Innovative Education, Decision Support Systems, European Journal of Information Systems, Defense Acquisition Review Journal, European Journal of Operational Research, Human Resource Management, IEEE Transactions (various), Information & Management, Information Systems Journal, Information Technology & People, International Business Review, Journal of Evolutionary Psychology, Journal of the Association for Information Systems, Journal of Management Information Systems, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Journal of Systems and Information Technology, MIS Quarterly, and Organization Science.
Branches of the Brazilian, New Zealand and US governments, as well as private organizations in these countries have funded his research. Major funding agencies have been the National Science Foundation, and the US Defense Acquisition University. His varied research interests are related to nonlinear structural equation modeling, action research, business process improvement, e-collaboration tools support for global virtual teams, ethical and legal issues related to technology management, evolutionary perspectives on behavior toward technology, and organizational communication.
Division of International Bus. and Tech. Studies
Texas A&M International University
5201 University Boulevard
Laredo, TX, 78041, USA
Information and documents in connection with Ned's courses are available from Blackboard.
Students having problems accessing course materials should contact the Office of Information Technology on (956) 326-2310, or that Office's Instructional Technology Area, on (956) 326-2793.
Below are selected publications authored/co-authored by Ned Kock with links to electronic versions of those publications. They are made available here with the goal of timely and wide dissemination of scholarly work. Individuals who decide to use the publications below as a basis for their research, scholarly activities, and/or educational efforts are cautioned against using the publications in ways that abuse and/or violate current laws in connection with the "fair use" of copyrighted material. For example, it is generally prohibited for an individual or organization to obtain financial advantage from the distribution of copyrighted material, if the individual or organization is not the copyright holder.
Kock, N. and Hadaya, P. (2018), Minimum Sample Size Estimation in PLS-SEM: The Inverse Square Root and Gamma-Exponential Methods, Information Systems Journal, V.28, No.1, pp. 227-261. PDF file
Kock, N., Avison, D. and Malaurent, J. (2017), Positivist Information Systems Action Research: Methodological Issues, Journal of Management Information Systems, V.34, No.3, pp. 754-767. PDF file
Kock, N. and Sexton, S. (2017), Variation Sharing: A Novel Numeric Solution to the Path Bias Underestimation Problem of PLS-Based SEM, International Journal of Strategic Decision Sciences, V.8, No.4, pp. 46-68. PDF file
Kock, N. (2017), Structural Equation Modeling with Factors and Composites: A Comparison of Four Methods, International Journal of e-Collaboration, V.13, No.1, pp. 1-9. PDF file
Kock, N., Jung, Y. and Syn, T. (2016), Wikipedia and E-Collaboration Research: Opportunities and Challenges, International Journal of e-Collaboration, V.12, No.2, pp. 1-8. PDF file
Kock, N. and Moqbel, M. (2016), A Six-Stage Framework for Evolutionary IS Research Using Path Models: Conceptual Development and a Social Networking Illustration, Journal of Systems and Information Technology, V.18, No.1, pp. 64-88. PDF file
Kock, N. (2015), A Note on How to Conduct a Factor-Based PLS-SEM Analysis, International Journal of e-Collaboration, V.11, No.3, pp. 1-9. PDF file
Kock, N. and Gaskins, L. (2014), The Mediating Role of Voice and Accountability in the Relationship between Internet Diffusion and Government Corruption in Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa, Information Technology for Development, V.20, No.1, pp. 23-43. PDF file
Kock, N. (2013), Using WarpPLS in E-Collaboration Studies: What if I Have Only One Group and One Condition? International Journal of e-Collaboration, V.9, No.3, pp. 1-12. PDF file
Ketkar, S., Kock, N., Parente, R. and Verville, J. (2012), The Impact of Individualism on Buyer-Supplier Relationship Norms, Trust and Market Performance: An Analysis of Data from Brazil and the U.S.A., International Business Review, V.21, No.5, pp. 782-793. PDF file
Kock, N. and Lynn, G.S. (2012), Lateral Collinearity and Misleading Results in Variance-Based SEM: An Illustration and Recommendations, Journal of the Association for Information Systems, V.13, No.7, pp. 546-580. PDF file
Kock, N. and Verville, J. (2012), Exploring Free Questionnaire Data with Anchor Variables: An Illustration Based on a Study of IT in Healthcare, International Journal of Healthcare Information Systems and Informatics, V.7, No.1, pp. 46-63. PDF file
Kock, N. and Chatelain-Jardon, R. (2011), Four Guiding Principles for Research on Evolved Information Processing Traits and Technology-mediated Task Performance, Journal of the Association for Information Systems, V.12, No.10, pp. 684-713. PDF file
Kock, N. (2011), A Mathematical Analysis of the Evolution of Human Mate Choice Traits: Implications for Evolutionary Psychologists, Journal of Evolutionary Psychology, V.9, No.3, pp. 219-247. PDF file
Kock, N. (2011), Using WarpPLS in E-Collaboration Studies: Mediating Effects, Control and Second Order Variables, and Algorithm Choices, International Journal of e-Collaboration, V.7, No.3, pp. 1-13. PDF file
Kock, N. (2011), Using WarpPLS in E-Collaboration Studies: Descriptive Statistics, Settings, and Key Analysis Results, International Journal of e-Collaboration, V.7, No.2, pp. 1-18. PDF file
Kock, N. (2010), Using WarpPLS in E-Collaboration Studies: An Overview of Five Main Analysis Steps, International Journal of e-Collaboration, V.6. No.4, pp. 1-11. PDF file
Kock, N. (2009), The Evolution of Costly Traits through Selection and the Importance of Oral Speech in E-Collaboration, Electronic Markets, V.19, No.4, pp. 221-232. PDF file
Kock, N., Del Aguila-Obra, A.R. and Padilla-Melendez, A. (2009), The Information Overload Paradox: A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis of Data from New Zealand, Spain and the U.S.A., Journal of Global Information Management, V.17, No.3, pp. 1-17. PDF file
Kock, N. (2009), Information Systems Theorizing Based on Evolutionary Psychology: An Interdisciplinary Review and Theory Integration Framework, MIS Quarterly, V.33, No.2, pp. 395-418. PDF file
DeLuca, D., Gallivan, M. and Kock, N. (2008), Furthering IS Action Research: A Postpositivist Synthesis of Four Dialectics, Journal of the Association for Information Systems, V.9, No.2, pp. 48-72. PDF file
Kock, N. (2008), E-Collaboration and E-Commerce in Virtual Worlds: The Potential of Second Life and World of Warcraft, International Journal of e-Collaboration, V.4. No.3, pp. 1-13. PDF file
Kock, N. (2008), International Trade and World Peace: The Possible Moderating Effect of E-Collaboration Media Naturalness, International Journal of e-Collaboration, V.4. No.2, pp. i-x. PDF file
Kock, N. (2008), Designing E-Collaboration Technologies to Facilitate Compensatory Adaptation, Information Systems Management, V.25, No.1, pp. 14-19. PDF file
Kock, N., Verville, J. and Garza, V. (2007), Media Naturalness and Online Learning: Findings Supporting both the Significant- and No-Significant-Difference Perspectives, Decision Sciences Journal of Innovative Education, V.5, No.2, pp. 333-356. PDF file
Kock, N. and Antunes, P. (2007), Government Funding of E-Collaboration Research in the European Union: A Comparison with the United States Model, International Journal of e-Collaboration, V.3, No.2, pp. 36-47. PDF file
Kock, N. and Verville, J. (2006), Enterprise Systems Contracting: Developing and Testing a Model of Divergent Approaches in the Service and Manufacturing Sectors, International Journal of Management Practice, V.2, No.2, pp. 127-143. PDF file
Kock, N., Aiken, R. and Sandas, C. (2006), Isolated versus Integrated Case Studies: A Comparison in the Context of Teaching Complex and Domain-specific IT Applications, Computers & Education, V.46, No.4, pp. 446-457. PDF file
Kock, N. (2006), Car Racing and Instant Messaging: Task Constraints as Determinants of e-Collaboration Technology Usefulness, International Journal of e-Collaboration, V.2, No.2, pp. i-v. PDF file
Kock, N. (2005), Using Action Research to Study E-Collaboration, International Journal of e-Collaboration, V.1, No.4, pp. i-vii. PDF file
Kock, N. (2005), Media Richness or Media Naturalness? The Evolution of our Biological Communication Apparatus and its Influence on our Behavior Toward E-Communication Tools, IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, V.48, No.2, pp. 117-130. PDF file
Kock, N. and Hantula, D.A. (2005), Do We Have e-Collaboration Genes?, International Journal of e-Collaboration, V.1, No.2, pp. i-ix. PDF file
Kock, N. and Nosek, J. (2005), Expanding the Boundaries of E-Collaboration, IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication (Special Issue on Expanding the Boundaries of E-Collaboration), V.48, No.1, pp. 1-9. PDF file
Kock, N. (2005), What is E-Collaboration?, International Journal of e-Collaboration, V.1, No.1, pp. i-vii. PDF file
Kock, N. (2004), The Psychobiological Model: Towards a New Theory of Computer-mediated Communication Based on Darwinian Evolution, Organization Science, V.15, No.3, pp. 327-348. PDF file
Kock, N. (2004), The Three Threats of Action Research: A Discussion of Methodological Antidotes in the Context of an Information Systems Study, Decision Support Systems, V.37, No.2, pp. 265-286. PDF file
Kock, N. and Davison, R. (2003), Dealing with Plagiarism in the IS Research Community: A Look at Factors that Drive Plagiarism and Ways to Address Them, MIS Quarterly, V.27, No.4, pp. 511-532. PDF file
Kock, N. (2003), Action Research: Lessons Learned from a Multi-Iteration Study of Computer-Mediated Communication in Groups, IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, V.46, No.2, pp. 105-128. PDF file
Kock, N. and Davison, R. (2003), Can Lean Media Support Knowledge Sharing? Investigating a Hidden Advantage of Process Improvement, IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, V.50, No.2, pp. 151-163. PDF file
Kock, N. (2003), Communication-focused Business Process Redesign: Assessing a Communication Flow Optimization Model Through an Action Research Study at a Defense Contractor, IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, V.46, No.1, pp. 35-54. PDF file
Kock, N. (2002), Managing with Web-based IT in Mind, Communications of the ACM, V.45, No.5, pp. 102-106. PDF file
Kock, N., Gray, P., Hoving, R., Klein, H., Myers, M. and Rockart, J. (2002), IS Research Relevance Revisited: Subtle Accomplishment, Unfulfilled Promise, or Serial Hypocrisy?, Communications of the Association for Information Systems, V.8, A.23, pp. 330-346. PDF file
Kock, N., Aiken, R. and Sandas, C. (2002), Using Complex IT in Specific Domains: Developing and Assessing a Course for Non-Majors, IEEE Transactions on Education, V.45, No.1, pp. 50-57. PDF file
Kock, N. (2001), Compensatory Adaptation to a Lean Medium: An Action Research Investigation of Electronic Communication in Process Improvement Groups, IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, V.44, No.4, pp. 267-285. PDF file
Kock, N. (2001), The Ape that Used Email: Understanding E-communication Behavior through Evolution Theory, Communications of the Association for Information Systems, V.5, A.3, pp. 1-29. PDF file
Kock, N., Auspitz, C. and King, B. (2000), Using the Web to Enable Industry-University Collaboration: An Action Research Study of a Course Partnership, Informing Science (Special issue on Organizational Learning), V.3, No.3, pp. 157-167. PDF file
Kock, N. (1999), A Case of Academic Plagiarism: The Perils of Internet Publication, Communications of the ACM, V.42, No.7, pp. 96-104. PDF file
Kock, N. (1998), Can Communication Medium Limitations Foster Better Group Outcomes? An Action Research Study, Information & Management, V.34, No.5, pp. 295-305. PDF file
Factor-Based SEM Building on Consistent PLS. PowerPoint slides file
Partial least squares (PLS) methods have desirable characteristics that have led to their extensive use in a variety for disciplines for path analyses with latent variables. Such variables are typically conceptualized as factors in structural equation modeling (SEM). In spite of their desirable characteristics, PLS methods suffer from a fundamental problem: unlike the classic covariance-based SEM, they do not deal with factors, but with composites, and as such do not account for measurement error. This leads to biased parameters, even as sample sizes grow to infinity. We discuss a method that builds on the consistent PLS technique and that deals with factors, fully accounting for measurement error. We provide evidence that this new method shares the property of statistical consistency with covariance-based SEM, but like traditional PLS methods has greater statistical power. Moreover, our method provides correlation-preserving estimates of the factors, which can be used in a variety of other tests. Our discussion builds on an illustrative model developed based on an information systems theory and related empirical work. The method is implemented in the software WarpPLS starting in version 6.0, along with other factor-based SEM algorithms already available in previous versions of this software.
Structural Equation Modeling in Human-centric Computing Research: A Study of Electronic Communication in Virtual Teams Using WarpPLS. PowerPoint slides file
Structural equation modeling is a multivariate data analysis technique that allows researchers to concurrently analyze multiple relationships among manifest and latent variables. It can be particularly useful for computer science, human factors, and engineering researchers who need to understand the impact of technologies on people. Two main approaches to SEM exist: covariance-based and variance-based. Variance-based SEM has been gaining attention in the past several years due to its flexibility. Among other features, it performs well under deviations of multivariate normality, and generally requires smaller sample sizes than covariance-based SEM. This presentation discusses variance-based SEM in the context of a study of electronic communication in virtual teams. The software used is WarpPLS, developed by the presenter and available at warppls.com. WarpPLS is an easy-to-use variance-based SEM software that allows for the modeling of direct, mediating, and moderating effects among latent variables. WarpPLS also allows for the modeling and estimation of noncyclical (U or J curves) and mono-cyclical (S curves) nonlinear relationships among latent variables.
Structural Equation Modeling Made Easy: A Tutorial Based on a Behavioral Study of Communication in Virtual Teams Using WarpPLS. PowerPoint slides file
Structural equation modeling is a multivariate data analysis technique that allows researchers to concurrently analyze multiple relationships among manifest and latent variables. Two main approaches to SEM exist: covariance-based and variance-based. Variance-based SEM has been gaining attention in the past several years due to its flexibility. Among other features, it performs well under deviations of multivariate normality, and generally requires smaller sample sizes than covariance-based SEM. This presentation discusses variance-based SEM in the context of a behavioral study of communication in virtual teams. The software used is WarpPLS, developed by the presenter and available at warppls.com. WarpPLS is an easy-to-use variance-based SEM software that allows for the modeling of direct, mediating, and moderating effects among latent variables. WarpPLS also allows for the modeling and estimation of noncyclical (U or J curves) and mono-cyclical (S curves) nonlinear relationships among latent variables.
Scaring Them into Learning!? Using a Snake Screen to Enhance the Knowledge Transfer Effectiveness of a Web Interface. PowerPoint slides file
It seems that surprise events have the potential to turn short-term into long-term memories; an unusual phenomenon that may have limited but interesting applications in learning tasks. This surprise-enhanced cognition phenomenon is theoretically modeled based on the notion that many human mental traits have evolved through natural selection; a mathematical analysis building on Price's covariance theorem is employed in this modeling effort. Additionally, the phenomenon is discussed in the context of an online learning task, based on a study involving 186 student participants. A simulated threat was incorporated into a human-computer interface with the goal of increasing the interface's knowledge transfer effectiveness. The participants were asked to review Web-based learning modules and subsequently take a test on what they had learned. Data from 6 learning modules in 2 experimental conditions were contrasted. In the treatment condition a Web-based screen with a snake in attack position was used to surprise the participants; the snake screen was absent in the control condition. As predicted, the participants in the treatment condition did significantly better in the test for the modules immediately before and after the snake screen than the participants in the control condition. These findings are extrapolated to classroom applications in general. Ethical considerations are also discussed.
Costly Mate Choice Traits Should be Fairly Rare and Particularly Attractive to Members of the Opposite Sex. PowerPoint slides file
Costly mate choice traits are attractive traits that have a survival cost, where the cost presumably ensures that the traits are honest indicators of fitness to members of the opposite sex. This presentation suggests that costly traits used in mate choice by humans should be fairly rare and particularly attractive, more so than non-costly ones. Contrary to Zahavi's handicap principle, however, it is argued here that mate choice traits do not always have to be costly to be reliable. These arguments build on a comparative mathematical analysis of the evolution of costly and non-costly mate choice traits. Price's covariance equation is combined with Wright's path analysis method, reducing the mathematical analysis to simple algebraic operations that can be understood and extended by evolutionary psychologists with limited mathematical training.
Using Surprise in Human-Computer Interfaces to Enhance Knowledge Communication Effectiveness. PowerPoint slides file
A study with 186 subjects is described in which a simulated threat was incorporated into a human-computer interface with the goal of increasing the interface's knowledge communication effectiveness. The subjects were asked to review Web-based learning modules about International Commercial Terms (Incoterms), and subsequently take a test on what they had learned. Data from 6 learning modules in 2 experimental conditions were contrasted. In the treatment condition a Web-based screen with a snake in attack position was used to surprise the subjects; the snake screen was absent in the control condition. As predicted, the subjects in the treatment condition did significantly better in the test for the modules immediately before and after the snake screen than the subjects in the control condition; approximately 18 and 38 percent better, respectively.
MIS and Decision Science at TAMIU: The Department and its Programs. PowerPoint slides file
This presentation starts with a definition of the terms "MIS" and "decision science", and a discussion of the origins of MIS as a field of study aimed at looking into the impacts of information technologies on individuals and groups. The key differences between MIS and computer science are discussed. This is followed by a review of the programs offered by the Department of MIS and Decision Science at Texas A&M International University, which includes information on both major and minor (or concentration) programs. The presentation concludes with a discussion of career paths and accomplishments by former students.
The Scholar's Curse. PDF file
Acceptance speech delivered on September 1, 2005 at the Texas A&M International University's Fall Convocation Ceremony, for the Scholar of the Year Award. The speech argues that scholarly contributions are rarely recognized at the time they are made. It uses Darwin's theory of mutation, inheritance and selection of biological traits as an example.
An Extension and Test of the Communication Flow Optimization Model. PowerPoint slides file
This talk reports on a quasi-experimental action research study aimed at extending and testing the communication flow optimization model, which was developed as a result of a prior grant from the DoD's External Acquisition Research Program. The test is aimed at demonstrating the generality of the model, which is argued to apply to non-defense as well as defense-related organizations. In the study, business process redesign groups in four different US organizations (not defense-related) used two different types of business process representation. The study suggests that, contrary to assumptions likely underlying most of the current business process redesign practice, communication flow-oriented representations of business processes are perceived by those involved in their redesign as significantly more accurate, more useful in the identification of opportunities for process improvement, more useful in the application of process redesign guidelines, more useful in the visualization of process changes, and more useful in the development of generic IT solutions to implement new business processes, than activity flow-oriented representations. The results are consistent with those obtained in similar empirical studies of business process redesign projects involving DoD branches and contractors.
The E-Collaboration Paradox: Evidence from Two Empirical Studies. PowerPoint slides file
This talk advances a new explanation for a set of mixed findings associated with academic and industry research on electronic collaboration during the last 30 years. Those mixed findings suggest, seemingly contradictorily, that: (a) people seem to consistently perceive face-to-face communication to pose fewer obstacles to effective communication than other, particularly electronic, media; and (b) when groups conduct collaborative tasks using electronic collaboration technologies they often present the same level of performance as groups accomplishing the same tasks face-to-face; which is paradoxical, in light of (a). This talk argues that the evolutionary history of humans suggests strongly that modern humans must have been largely hardwired for face-to-face communication, which explains our perceptions favoring the face-to-face medium. Nevertheless, the talk also argues that human beings, when faced with communication obstacles, invariably try to compensate for them by changing their behavior in relatively predictable ways, which often leads to no negative impact on task outcome quality. The explanatory power of these propositions is illustrated based on evidence from two empirical studies. The first is an experimental study of 20 business process redesign dyads, which employs parametric and nonparametric comparisons of means techniques for data analysis: ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U tests, respectively. The second is a survey study of 290 new product development teams, which employs structural equation modeling (PLS) techniques for data analysis.
Information Overload and National Culture: Assessing Hofstede's Model Based on Data from Two Countries. PowerPoint slides file
This talk describes a study aimed at assessing Hofstede's cultural dimensions model by comparing information overload perceptions in two countries, namely the US and New Zealand. The two countries are very close in terms of cultural dimension scores, and are part of the same country cluster in Hofstede's model. Nevertheless, the two countries appear to differ significantly in terms of information overload perceptions, which is suggested by comparison of means and structural equation modeling analyses. While this finding is found to be consistent with the differences in cultural dimension scores between the US and New Zealand, especially in the power distance dimension, it seems to be inconsistent with those two countries being placed in the same country cluster.
Global Virtual Teamwork: Eight Key Empirical Findings and Related Conclusions. PowerPoint slides file
This talk discusses 8 key findings that have emerged from the analysis of over 860 business process redesign and new product development teams facilitated in three different countries. The teams used electronic communication technologies to different degrees when performing collaborative tasks. The findings refer to emerging concepts, such as that of a naturalness scale that can be used to categorize communication media, the degree of cognitive effort associated with different communication media, and the ability of different media to support the transfer of information and knowledge. Based on the discussion of the findings, some predictions are made regarding the impact of electronic communication tools on global virtual teams in general.